Around the year 1770, Thomas Jackson excavated an Indian burial mound in Virginia and wrote down what was contained in the mound. Jefferson was the first digger who could be called a scientist he wrote down what came down from the ground and also noted the order in which things were found. Other people read his report and understood what he found. Thus in archaeology, this type of reporting is necessary. However, more than a hundred years passed before it became an accepted thing to do.
Other individual with an interest in archaeology was Napoleon Bonaparte. He took along his army and scientists and made an expedition to Egypt.He wanted his artist and scientist investigate, record and draw the ancient Egyptian artifact which they could find. He established a studying area for artifacts in Cairo. These objects were meant for a Paris museum called Louvre museum. However because of English victory over the French in the year 1801 all the artifacts went to the London museum.
The two archaeologist (Jefferson and Napoleon) were ahead of their time in archaeology.Digging that was done in the 1800s and was organized by wealthy individuals who had their servants do it they conducted excavation as fancy picnics. The digging was much popular in England and France where there were Roman ruins that dated back during the time when Rome ruled Britain. Lovely mosaic floor and Roofing, burial grounds for romance and ruins of villas were fascinating to the picnic diggers. However, these people viewed what they had found as pretty or curious objects and for that, they gave less thought to those objects they had found and their positions and thus it would have been close to understanding lives of people who made them.
After that many people became more fascinated with life in England under the Romans. Unfortunately, the material that was discovered during the picnic expeditions was highly mixed up and thus the archaeologists could not make use of it.
An archeology must know the order in which objects have come out of the ground. Additionally, he/she should be aware which groups of objects are found together, and thus he/she can accurately reconstruct the scene of life at any time to the past. No detective would want his clues removed from the crime scene before he studies them. The same thing happens with an archaeologist in that he cannot use clues that have been removed and mixed up.